thiamineˈθaɪ ə mɪn, -ˌmin; -mɪn
vitamin B1, thiamine, thiamin, aneurin, antiberiberi factor (noun)
a B vitamin that prevents beriberi; maintains appetite and growth
One of the constituents of vitamin B complex, found in meat, yeast and bran, that is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Thiamine or thiamin or vitamin B1, named as the "thio-vitamine" is a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex. First named aneurin for the detrimental neurological effects if not present in the diet, it was eventually assigned the generic descriptor name vitamin B1. Its phosphate derivatives are involved in many cellular processes. The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate, a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. Thiamine is used in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In yeast, TPP is also required in the first step of alcoholic fermentation. All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, and thus, for them, it is an essential nutrient. Insufficient intake in birds produces a characteristic polyneuritis. In mammals, deficiency results in Korsakoff's syndrome, optic neuropathy, and a disease called beriberi that affects the peripheral nervous system and/or the cardiovascular system. Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.
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