constipationˌkɒn stəˈpeɪ ʃən
constipation, irregularity (noun)
irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis
stultification, constipation, impairment, deadening (noun)
the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
Act of crowding anything into a lesser compass, or the state of being crowded or pressed together; condensation.
A state of the bowels in which the evacuations are infrequent and difficult, or the intestines become filled with hardened faeces; costiveness.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation. Severe constipation includes obstipation and fecal impaction, which can progress to bowel obstruction and become life-threatening. Constipation is a symptom with many causes. These causes are of two types: obstructed defecation and colonic slow transit. About 50% of patients evaluated for constipation at tertiary referral hospitals have obstructed defecation. This type of constipation has mechanical and functional causes. Causes of colonic slow transit constipation include diet, hormonal disorders such as hypothyroidism, side effects of medications, and rarely heavy metal toxicity. Because constipation is a symptom, not a disease, effective treatment of constipation may require first determining the cause. Treatments include changes in dietary habits, laxatives, enemas, biofeedback, and in particular situations surgery may be required. Constipation is common; in the general population incidence of constipation varies from 2 to 30%.
Constipation is a bowel dysfunction that makes bowel movements infrequent or hard to pass. The stool is often hard and dry. Other symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and feeling as if one has not completely passed the bowel movement. Complications from constipation may include hemorrhoids, anal fissure or fecal impaction. The normal frequency of bowel movements in adults is between three per day and three per week. Babies often have three to four bowel movements per day while young children typically have two to three per day.Constipation has many causes. Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders. Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, colon cancer, diverticulitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Medications associated with constipation include opioids, certain antacids, calcium channel blockers, and anticholinergics. Of those taking opioids about 90% develop constipation. Constipation is more concerning when there is weight loss or anemia, blood is present in the stool, there is a history of inflammatory bowel disease or colon cancer in a person's family, or it is of new onset in someone who is older.Treatment of constipation depends on the underlying cause and the duration that it has been present. Measures that may help include drinking enough fluids, eating more fiber, consumption of honey and exercise. If this is not effective, laxatives of the bulk-forming agent, osmotic agent, stool softener, or lubricant type may be recommended. Stimulant laxatives are generally reserved for when other types are not effective. Other treatments may include biofeedback or in rare cases surgery.In the general population rates of constipation are 2–30 percent. Among elderly people living in a care home the rate of constipation is 50–75 percent. People spend, in the United States, more than US$250 million on medications for constipation a year.
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