effigyˈɛf ɪ dʒi
effigy, image, simulacrum (noun)
a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture)
"the coin bears an effigy of Lincoln"; "the emperor's tomb had his image carved in stone"
a dummy or other crude representation of a person, group or object that is hated.
a likeness of a person.
An effigy is a representation of a specific person, especially in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. Effigies are common elements of funerary art, especially as a recumbent effigy in stone or metal placed on a tomb. Figures damaged, destroyed or paraded in order to harm the person represented by magical means, or merely to insult them or their memory are also called effigies. The best known British example is the burning of an effigy made of straw and/or old clothing depicting the 17th century Catholic conspirator, Guy Fawkes. In the past, criminals sentenced to death in absentia might be officially executed "in effigy" as a symbolic act. In southern India, effigies of the demon-king Ravana from the epic poem the Ramayana are traditionally burnt during the festival of Navrati. In many parts of the world there are traditions of large caricature effigies of political or other figures carried on floats in parades at festivals. Political effigies serve a broadly similar purpose on political demonstrations or annual community rituals such as that held in Lewes, on the south coast of England. In Lewes, models of important or unpopular figures in current affairs are burned on Bonfire Night, formerly alongside an effigy of the Pope.
An effigy is an often life-size sculptural representation of a specific person, or a prototypical figure. The term is mostly used for the makeshift dummies used for symbolic punishment in political protests and for the figures burned in certain traditions around New Year, Carnival and Easter. In European cultures, effigies were in the past also used for punishment in formal justice, when the perpetrator could not be apprehended, and in popular justice practices of social shaming and exclusion. Additionally, "effigy" is used for certain traditional forms of sculpture, namely tomb effigies, funeral effigies and coin effigies. There is a large overlap and exchange between the ephemeral forms of effigies. Traditional holiday effigies are often politically charged, for instance, when the generalised figures Año Viejo (the Old Year) or Judas in Latin America are substituted by the effigy of a despised politician. Traditional forms are also borrowed for political protests. In India, for instance, effigies in protests regularly take the form of the ten-headed demon king Ravana, as they figure in the traditional Ramlila. In Mexico and the United States piñatas depicting a politician sometimes turn up at protests and are beaten to a pulp. Procedures of formal and popular justice are appropriated, when the effigy of a politician in a protest figures in a mock trial, mock execution and mock funeral. In all cases, except the traditional effigies, there is an emphasis on the social and political aspects of the depicted person. Tomb effigies and funeral effigies exhibit attire and office insignia that indicate social status; coin effigies are signs of sovereignty; formal punishment of an effigy was synonymous to social death; popular punishment was meant to humiliate and ostracise the depicted; effigies in political protests ridicule and attack the honour of the targeted politician.
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"effigy." Kamus.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2023. Web. 6 Feb. 2023. <https://www.kamus.net/english/effigy>.