salmonellaˌsæl məˈnɛl ə; -ˈnɛl i
rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
Any of several rod-shaped bacteria, of the genus Salmonella, that cause food poisoning and other diseases
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella that grade in all directions. They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, and are facultative anaerobes. Most species produce hydrogen sulfide, which can readily be detected by growing them on media containing ferrous sulfate, such as TSI. Most isolates exist in two phases: a motile phase I and a nonmotile phase II. Cultures that are nonmotile upon primary culture may be switched to the motile phase using a Cragie tube. Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals, and in the environment. They cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,600 serotypes. Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon (1850–1914), an American veterinary surgeon. Salmonella species are non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with cell diameters between about 0.7 and 1.5 μm, lengths from 2 to 5 μm, and peritrichous flagella (all around the cell body, allowing them to move). They are chemotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions, using organic sources. They are also facultative anaerobes, capable of generating ATP with oxygen ("aerobically") when it is available, or using other electron acceptors or fermentation ("anaerobically") when oxygen is not available.Salmonella species are intracellular pathogens, of which certain serotypes cause illness. Most infections are due to ingestion of food contaminated by animal feces, or by human feces, such as by a food-service worker at a commercial eatery. Salmonella serotypes can be divided into two main groups—typhoidal and nontyphoidal. Nontyphoidal serotypes are zoonotic and can be transferred from animal-to-human and from human-to-human. They usually invade only the gastrointestinal tract and cause salmonellosis, the symptoms of which can be resolved without antibiotics. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, nontyphoidal Salmonella can be invasive and cause paratyphoid fever, which requires immediate treatment with antibiotics. Typhoidal serotypes can only be transferred from human-to-human, and can cause food-borne infection, typhoid fever, and paratyphoid fever. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella invading the bloodstream (the typhoidal form), or in addition spreading throughout the body, invading organs, and secreting endotoxins (the septic form). This can lead to life-threatening hypovolemic shock and septic shock, and requires intensive care including antibiotics.
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"salmonella." Kamus.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2023. Web. 26 Sep. 2023. <https://www.kamus.net/english/salmonella>.